Oleh : Izmal Karim

Dua perbandingan peta hasil dari jurukur dan pemetaan British di Singapura & Tanah Melayu dan Jurukur Diraja Siam yang di ketuai oleh James Fitzroy McCarthy (1853–1919),jurukur berbangsa Irish dalam menentukan perbatasan sempadan di antara kedua-dua pentadbir ini di sepanjang tanah dan jajahan negeri-negeri Melayu utara Semenanjung sekitar tahun 1900.

Malay Peninsular Maps – Harrison & Son, Feb 1900.

Penentuan sempadan ini bermula dari pantai barat di lembah Sungai Kerian, Perak iaitu selepas Wellesley (Seberang Perai) memanjang merentasi Kedah (Sai Buri), Perak, Reman (Negeri Melayu Jajahan Siam), Kelantan dan Trengganu di Tanjung Geliga di sebelah pantai timur.

Sempadan di antara British di Tanah Melayu dengan Siam berubah buat kali terakhir selepas temeterai Perjanjian Bangkok pada tahun 1909. Tindakan Ini hasil Kerajaan Siam menyerahkan 4 buah negeri-negeri melayu di Utara Semenanjung iaitu Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan dan Trengganu dari naungannya kepada British. Petukaran serta penyerahan negeri-negeri melayu ini sebagai timbal balas ataupun tukaran dalam mendapatkan sokongan kewangan dari British Tanah Melayu dengan pinjaman kewangan sebanyak 4 Juta Pound dengan kadar 4 peratus setahun bagi menyiapkan landasan keretapi di wilayah selatan.

Map of the Kingdom of Siam and Its Dependencies. From Government Surveys under the Direction of J.M.McCarthy by order of H.R.H. Prince Mahsia Rajarudhu.No Date.

Sepanjang isu persempadanan ini di tentukan di antara British dan Siam, Sultan Idris Murshidul Azzam Shah (29 Julai 1887 – 14 Januari 1916) Sultan Perak melalui Sir Hugh Low, Residen British yang ke -4 (1 April 1877 – 31 Mei 1889) berterusan bertindak menuntut serta mendapatkan kembali Reman menjadi sebahagian dari wilayah Kesultanan Perak. Tuntutan Sultan Perak ini disokong kuat berpandukan rujukan dan rekod-rekod awal tanah dan jajahan Kesultanan Perak. Hasil galian Bijih Timah menjadi daya penarik kepada British memberi tekanan serta desakan dalam rundingan dengan Siam. Namun agak mendukacita pabila sebahagian dari tanah dan jajahan Kesultanan Kelantan di Tabal (Tak Bai) terpaksa di lepaskan kepada Kerajaan Siam.  Situasi yang sama turut berlaku ke atas tanah dan jajahan Kesultanan Kedah dan Perlis yang kehilangan sebahagian dari wilayahnya.

“Commencing from the most seaward point of -the northern bank of the estuary of the Perlis River and thence north to the range of hills which is the watershed between the Perlis River on the one side and the Pujoh River on the other; then following the watershed formed by the said range of hills until it reaches the main watershed or dividing line between those rivers which flow into the Gulf of Siam on the one side and into the Indian Ocean on the other; following this main watershed so as to pass the sources of the Sungei Patani, Sungei Telubin and Sungei Perak, to a point wbich is the som·ce of the Sungei Pergau; then leaving the main watershed and going along the watershed separating the waters of the Sungei Pergau from the Sungei Telubin, to the hill called Bukit Jeli or the source of the main stream of the Sungei Golok. Thence the frontier follows the thalweg of the main stream of the Sungei Golok to the sea at a place called Kuala Tabar.

This line will leave the valleys of the Sungei Patani, Sungei Telubin, and Sungei Tanjung Mas and the valley on the left or west bank of the Golok to Siam and the whole valley of the Perak River and the valley on the right or east bank of the Golok to Great Britain.

Subjects of each of the parties may navigate the whole of the waters of the Sungei Golok and its affluents.

The island known as Pulo Langkawi, together .with all the islets south of mid-channel between Terutau and Langkawi and all the islands south of Langkawi shall become British. Terutau and the islets to the north of mid-channel shall remain to Siam.

With regard to the islands close to the west coast, those lying to the north of the parallel of latitude where the most seaward point of the North bank of the estuary of the Perlis River touches the sea shall remain to Siam, and those lying to the south of that parallel shall become British.

All islands adjacent to the eastern States of Kelantan and Tringganu, south of a parallel of latitude drawn from the point where the Sungei Golok reaches the coast at a place called Kuala Tabar shall be transferred to Great Britain, and all islands to the north of that parallel shall remain to Siam”

– Boundary Protocol, Siam Treaty With Great Britain – 1909

Kesan persempadan yang di aturkan oleh British dan Kerajaan Siam terhadap negeri-negeri Melayu di Utara pada 1909, ianya telah menjadi titik permisahan di antara penduduk melayu kepada dua kerajaan yang berbeza iaitu Persekutuan Tanah Melayu dan Siam.

Adakah penduduk di sepanjang sempadan di antara Negeri-negeri Melayu Utara Semenanjung ini ada hak bagi menuntut kembali satu perbicaraan secara adil dan telus di adakan semula? Berdasarkan perjanjian yang telah di meterai; tiada langsung penglibatan samada Sultan, Pembesar ataupun wakil mereka dalam rundingan ini.

Rujukan :

1.Malay Peninsular Maps – Harrison & Son, Feb 1900.

2.Map of the Kingdom of Siam and Its Dependencies. From Government Surveys under the Direction of J.M.McCarthy by order of H.R.H. Prince Mahsia Rajarudhu.No Date.

3.Siam Treaty With Great Britain – 1909.

4.The Buddha on Mecca’s Verandah. Encouters, Mobilities, and Histories Along The Malaysian-Thai Border. (Critical Dialogues in Southeast Asian Studies), 2012. Irving Chan Johnson.

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